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Volcano Unit Plan

Volcanoes Science Unit

Diana Pyatigorsky

Fifth Grade

Length of unit: Approximately 2 weeks

The topic of Volcanoes fits with the NYCDOE Scope and Sequence by covering Standard 2: Earth Science, what are the processes that help shape the land? Identify events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that cause earth movements. This topic can also be integrated into the Social Studies curriculum, unit three of Latin America, as students study Mt. Popocatepetl and its significance to the Aztec, Mayan and Incan people. Additionally, students can bring their volcano topics into their writing and reading workshops while reading non-fiction books and writing non-fiction essays fulfilling informational texts English Language Arts standards.

Integration into other curriculum areas

The unit covers approximately two weeks of instruction and strives to integrate volcanoes into the five subject areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. Students are initially introduced to volcanoes as geographic elements that shape out land and continually change our planet. Focus questions include:  What are the types of volcanoes? What are the parts of volcanoes? What are the effects of volcanic eruptions? What effects do volcanoes have on the environment? How do volcanoes work?

Possible English Language Arts integration questions include:  How may science fiction present volcanoes? What role does persuasive speech play in communicating safety issues surrounding volcanic eruptions? Why are people concerned about volcanic eruptions? How can you obtain information concerning professions in the study of volcanoes? How are people informed of volcanic eruptions? How can volcano information be shared with the general public?( News Article lesson)

Possible Social Studies integration questions include: What are some examples of past volcanic eruptions and their effects? How natural disaster has affected past civilizations?  What is the historical significance of the eruption of Latin America’s Mt. Popocatepetl? How does Mt. Popocatepetl affect the civilizations of Latin America today?

Possible Math integration questions include: How do mathematical records help experts with volcanic predictions? How can natural disaster effects be measured? How is Mt. Popocatepetl being measured today? How do expert analyze volcanic statistics?

During this unit, student utilize skills across multiple discipline such as researching, gathering data from informational texts, presentation of ideas, creating mental schemas and building independent learning methods.


 I.                   Four Lessons:

Lesson 1

Name: Diana Pyatigorsky

Grade: Fifth Grade

Lesson Title: What are Volcanoes?

Materials:

  • Computer with Internet access
  • Population density map
  • Writing and drawing materials
  • United States Map

Pre-assessment of Student Knowledge: Students must know the terms: plate tectonics, volcano, and earthquake.

Content-Specific Standards:

Science:

Standard 2: What are the processes that help shape the land?

2.2a,c,f– Identify events such as earthquakes, volcanic eruption that cause earth movements.

Social Studies:

Standard 3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth’s surface
Standard 7: The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface
Standard 12: The processes, patterns, and functions of human settlement
Standard 15: How physical systems affect human systems

English Language Arts

Standard 1: Language for Information and Understanding Students will listen, speak, read, and write for information and understanding. As listeners and readers, students will collect data, facts, and ideas; discover relationships, concepts, and generalizations; and use knowledge generated from oral, written, and electronically produced texts.

Standard 4: Language for Social Interaction
Students will listen, speak, read, and write for social interaction. Students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language for effective social communication with a wide variety of people.

Mathematics

Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design
Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.

Technology

Standard 2: Information Systems
Students will access, generate, process, and transfer information using appropriate technologies.

Art

Standard 1: Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Arts Students will actively engage in the processes that constitute creation and performance in the arts and participate in various roles in the arts.
Standard 2: Knowing and Using Arts Materials and Resources
Students will be knowledgeable about and make use of the materials and resources available for participation in the arts in various roles.

Objectives:

Objectives:

Students will

  • read and understand the Ring of Fire
  • map the regions of the United States that have volcanoes
  • look at a population density map and explain if people avoid living in areas at high risk volcanoes
  • Research specific volcanoes or zones and write pretend letters to residents of these areas describing the risks.

 

Procedure

Introduction and Motivation:

Engaging Question: Ask students if they know where in the United States a volcanic eruption might occur. Have any of the students ever witnessed these events?

Activities:

Exploration: Have students learn about volcanoes by going to one or more of the following Web sites. Ask them to take notes on why volcanoes occur.

Explanation: Discuss these concepts with the class.

National Geographic: Forces of Nature—Volcanoes

Discovery: Volcanoes

Expansion: Give each student a blank United States outline map, and have them look at a map of Earth’s major plates. Ask them to determine which areas of the United States are probably most susceptible to volcanic eruptions, based on what they have learned. Have them use dark colored pencils to draw the plate boundaries and light colored pencils to shade in the predicted areas of high volcano risk on their maps.

Students can then use these U.S. Geological Survey maps of volcano zones to check their own maps:

USGS: Volcanic Hazards

Ask students to refer to a United States political map, either in the classroom, in an atlas, and list the states that lie on plate boundaries. Have students explain what particular hazards residents of these states have to be concerned with as a result of the location where they live.

Have students look at this population density map of North America. They can also look at a map that shows historic volcanic eruptions in North America.

Ask students whether there is a relationship between population density and areas of increased risk for volcanoes. They should address these questions, either in writing or in a class discussion:

Closure:

Ask students to choose a particular volcano (e.g., Mount St. Helen or Mount Rainier) and find out more about the risks associated with living near this natural hazard. They can find information at these Web sites and other Internet and print resources:
National Geographic: Forces of Nature—Volcanoes
Volcano World

Evaluation: Homework: Have students write pretend letters to the people who live near the volcano or in the earthquake zone they chose above. Their letters should describe how the natural hazard develops and how people can prepare for the hazard.

Assessment:  Assess understanding during conference time and during the share. Ask follow up questions if students are not confident with their explanations. Assessment of student work based on Rubric. Have students write paragraphs explaining the reasons why earthquakes and volcanoes tend to occur on plate boundaries.

For students with disabilities, it will be important to be aware of each student’s individual learning needs and testing accommodations as identified in the Individualized Education Plan

Diversity: This lesson brings abstract scientific concept into concrete instruction by use of pictures, props, and the creation of illustrations.

Differentiation:

As a Group:

Collaborative and Flexible grouping, scaffolding, varied time allowance, multiple intelligences, varied demonstrations, simulations, role play

Students with Disabilities:

Key points are taught explicitly, especially abstract concepts meanwhile increasing the amount of modeling, examples and practice.

Hands-on activities are used for students lacking verbal skills

Increase concreteness by adding pictures, props, labels, charge, symbols, shapes and color.

Using visual and tactile skills, students who struggle with abstract scientific concepts are able to use their own illustrations to show that they understand the content. This lesson also supports concreteness of the topic with the use of pictures, labels and name (McCormick, 2011).

Connections Across Curriculum: Physical Science, Writing, Geography, Art and Social Studies

Lesson 2

Name: Diana Pyatigorsky

Grade: Fifth Grade

Lesson Title: Types of Volcanoes

Materials:

Understanding: Volcanoes video

• Basic information about volcanoes (Articles)

• Computer with Internet access

• Paraffin or broken crayons

• Stove or hot plate

• Double boiler

• Wax paper

• Metal tray

• Refrigerator

• Sand

• Large paper cup

• Newspaper

• Ruler

Pre-assessment of Student Knowledge:

Students have been introduced to the complexity of Volcanoes

 

Content-Specific Standards:

Science:

Standard 2: What are the processes that help shape the land?

2.2a,c,f– Identify events such as earthquakes, volcanic eruption that cause earth movements.

Social Studies:

Standard 3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth’s surface
Standard 7: The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface
Standard 12: The processes, patterns, and functions of human settlement
Standard 15: How physical systems affect human systems

English Language Arts

Standard 1: Language for Information and Understanding Students will listen, speak, read, and write for information and understanding. As listeners and readers, students will collect data, facts, and ideas; discover relationships, concepts, and generalizations; and use knowledge generated from oral, written, and electronically produced texts.

Standard 4: Language for Social Interaction
Students will listen, speak, read, and write for social interaction. Students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language for effective social communication with a wide variety of people.

Mathematics

Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design
Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.

Technology

Standard 2: Information Systems
Students will access, generate, process, and transfer information using appropriate technologies.

Art

Standard 1: Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Arts Students will actively engage in the processes that constitute creation and performance in the arts and participate in various roles in the arts.
Standard 2: Knowing and Using Arts Materials and Resources
Students will be knowledgeable about and make use of the materials and resources available for participation in the arts in various roles.

Objectives:

Objectives:

Student will understand that there are three types of volcanoes: shield volcanoes, cinder cones, and composite volcanoes.

Student will understand what each volcanic eruption produces. A shield volcano produces lava, or molten rock, when it erupts; a cinder cone produces ash; and a composite volcano is a combination of the first two.

Students will understand that each type of volcano has a distinct shape.

Procedure

Introduction and Motivation:

Engaging Question: What are different types of volcanoes?

A volcano is a mountain that has formed from lave. A volcano has many parts and there are many different kinds of volcanoes.

Activities:

Exploration:

1. Introduce the three different types of volcanoes: shield volcano, cinder cone, and composite volcano.

2.  Have students use the research materials or the Internet to find a description for each type of volcano, an explanation of how each type is formed, and an actual example of each type. Before students begin making their models, they should know the following:

• A shield volcano is formed when a large amount of free-flowing lava, or molten rock, spills from a vent, or opening in the earth, and spreads widely. The lava gradually builds up a low, broad, dome-shaped mountain. (Example: Mauna Loa in Hawaii.)

• A cinder cone builds up when mostly ash erupts from a vent and falls to the earth around the vent. The accumulated ash forms a cone-shaped mountain that appears flat on top.

• A composite volcano is formed when both lava and ash erupt from a vent. The materials pile up in alternate layers around the vent and form a cone-shaped mountain that comes to a point on top. (Examples: Mount Fuji in Japan, Mount Vesuvius in Italy.)

3. Divide class into three groups, and assign each group one type of volcano to model.

Explanation

Students follow these steps

a) Melt 2 or more cups of paraffin or broken crayons in a double boiler, and very slowly pour the hot liquid onto a chilled metal tray covered with wax paper.

b) Stop pouring when the pool of melted paraffin is 5 inches in diameter.

c) Allow it to cool.

d) Remelt the remaining paraffin, and then pour again.

e) Stop and wait.

f) Repeat several more times.

4. To make a model of a cinder cone, have students follow these steps:

a) Pour sand from a large paper cup onto some newspaper.

b) Continue pouring until your “volcano” is about 8 inches high.

5. To make a model of a composite volcano, have students follow the steps for the shield volcano, alternating layers of sand with the layers of melted paraffin or crayons.

6. Have students compare the models.

7. Expansion Each student should write a paragraph explaining how his or her model was constructed and which natural materials are represented by the materials used in the model.

Closure:  Review topics and class accomplishments

Evaluation: Assessment:  Assess understanding during conference time and during the share. Ask follow up questions if students are not confident with their explanations. Evaluate students on their work sheet answers using the answer key. Rubric

For students with disabilities, it will be important to be aware of each student’s individual learning needs and testing accommodations as identified in the Individualized Education Plan

Three-point rubric to evaluate students’ work during this lesson.

• 3 points: Student’s paragraph provides clear explanation of how model was constructed; accurate account of which natural materials the materials in the model represent; error-free writing.

• 2 points: Student’s paragraph provides adequate explanation of how model was constructed; accurate account of which natural materials the materials in the model represent; some writing errors.

• 1 point: Student’s paragraph provides vague, sketchy explanation of how model was constructed; partially inaccurate account of which natural materials the materials in the model represent; numerous writing errors.

Diversity: This lesson brings abstract scientific concept into concrete instruction by use of pictures, props, and the creation of illustrations.

Differentiation:

As a Group:

Collaborative and Flexible grouping, scaffolding, varied time allowance, multiple intelligences, varied demonstrations, simulations, role play

Students with Disabilities:

Key points are taught explicitly, especially abstract concepts meanwhile increasing the amount of modeling, examples and practice.

Hands-on activities are used for students lacking verbal skills

Increase concreteness by adding pictures, props, labels, charge, symbols, shapes and color.

Using visual and tactile skills, students who struggle with abstract scientific concepts are able to use their own illustrations to show that they understand the content. This lesson also supports concreteness of the topic with the use of pictures, labels and name (McCormick, 2011).

Connections Across Curriculum: Physical Science, Research, Writing, Speaking and Listening
 

Lesson 3

Name: Diana Pyatigorsky

Grade: Fifth Grade

Lesson Title: Parts of a Volcano

Materials:

Parts of a Volcano diagram distributed to students with labels removed, Vocabulary Worksheet,

Pre-assessment of Student Knowledge: Students must know the concepts of volcano and their impact on the world

Content-Specific Standards:

Science:

Standard 2: What are the processes that help shape the land?

2.2a,c,f– Identify events such as earthquakes, volcanic eruption that cause earth movements.

Social Studies:

Standard 3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth’s surface
Standard 7: The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface
Standard 12: The processes, patterns, and functions of human settlement
Standard 15: How physical systems affect human systems

English Language Arts

Standard 1: Language for Information and Understanding Students will listen, speak, read, and write for information and understanding. As listeners and readers, students will collect data, facts, and ideas; discover relationships, concepts, and generalizations; and use knowledge generated from oral, written, and electronically produced texts.

Standard 4: Language for Social Interaction
Students will listen, speak, read, and write for social interaction. Students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language for effective social communication with a wide variety of people.

Mathematics

Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design
Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.

Technology

Standard 2: Information Systems
Students will access, generate, process, and transfer information using appropriate technologies.

Art

Standard 1: Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Arts Students will actively engage in the processes that constitute creation and performance in the arts and participate in various roles in the arts.
Standard 2: Knowing and Using Arts Materials and Resources
Students will be knowledgeable about and make use of the materials and resources available for participation in the arts in various roles.

Objectives:

Objectives:

Students learn about the parts of a volcano and correctly identify each part.


Procedure

Introduction and Motivation:

Engaging Question: What are the parts of a volcano?

Review what students already know about volcanoes. Introduce terms such as magma, lava, vent, and cone.

You will learn the major parts of a volcano.

Activities:

Exploration: Teacher reviews volcano parts on Smartboard

Explanation: Teacher reviews the function and significance of each element of the volcano

Expansion: Students match each volcano part to its definition on a Vocabulary Work Sheet. When students finish the work sheets, ask them to label the Parts of a Volcano.

Evaluation: Closure: Review topics, student curiosities and class accomplishments

Assessment:  Assess understanding during conference time and during the share. Ask follow up questions if students are not confident with their explanations. Evaluate students on their work sheet answers using the answer key.

For students with disabilities, it will be important to be aware of each student’s individual learning needs and testing accommodations as identified in the Individualized Education Plan

Diversity: This lesson brings abstract scientific concept into concrete instruction by use of pictures, props, and the creation of illustrations.

Differentiation:

As a Group:

Collaborative and Flexible grouping, scaffolding, varied time allowance, multiple intelligences, varied demonstrations, simulations, role play

Students with Disabilities:

Key points are taught explicitly, especially abstract concepts meanwhile increasing the amount of modeling, examples and practice.

Hands-on activities are used for students lacking verbal skills

Increase concreteness by adding pictures, props, labels, charge, symbols, shapes and color.

Using visual and tactile skills, students who struggle with abstract scientific concepts are able to use their own illustrations to show that they understand the content. This lesson also supports concreteness of the topic with the use of pictures, labels and name (McCormick, 2011).

Connections Across Curriculum: Physical Science, Writing

 

Vocabulary Worksheet

DIRECTIONS: Find the definition for each volcano term. Write the letter of the correct

definition on the line next to each term.

Name _______________________

1. _____ ash a. molten rock beneath Earth’s surface
2. _____ ash cloud b. a small cone-shaped volcano formed by an accumulation of volcanic debris
3. _____ conduit c. a flat piece of rock formed when magma hardens in a crack in a volcano
4. _____ cinder cone d. an opening in Earth’s surface through which volcanic materials escape
5. _____ crater e. fragments of lava or rock smaller than 2 millimeters in size that are blasted into the air by volcanic explosions
6. _____ dike f. the part of the conduit that ejects lava and volcanic ash
7. _____ lava g. a cloud of ash formed by volcanic explosions
8. _____ magma h. molten rock that erupts from a volcano
9. _____throat i. a circular depression surrounding a volcanic vent
10. _____vent j. an underground passage magma travels through

 

Lesson 4

Name: Diana Pyatigorsky

Grade: Fifth Grade

Lesson Title: Making a Volcano/ Writing news article

Materials:

Each group will need the following materials:

Newspaper
Smocks or lab coats for all group members
Modeling clay, salt dough, or soil
Small empty plastic soda bottle
Baking pan
Red food coloring
Liquid detergent
Two tablespoons (25 milliliters) baking soda
Funnel
Vinegar

Pre-assessment of Student Knowledge:

Students must understand what a volcano is and how it affects the Earth

Students must know the components of a volcano

Students must understand terms such as: core, mantle, crust and tectonic plates.

Content-Specific Standards:

Science:

Standard 2: What are the processes that help shape the land?

2.2a,c,f– Identify events such as earthquakes, volcanic eruption that cause earth movements.

Social Studies:

Standard 3: How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth’s surface
Standard 7: The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface
Standard 12: The processes, patterns, and functions of human settlement
Standard 15: How physical systems affect human systems

English Language Arts

Standard 1: Language for Information and Understanding Students will listen, speak, read, and write for information and understanding. As listeners and readers, students will collect data, facts, and ideas; discover relationships, concepts, and generalizations; and use knowledge generated from oral, written, and electronically produced texts.

Standard 4: Language for Social Interaction
Students will listen, speak, read, and write for social interaction. Students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language for effective social communication with a wide variety of people.

Mathematics

Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry, and Design
Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.

Technology

Standard 2: Information Systems
Students will access, generate, process, and transfer information using appropriate technologies.

Art

Standard 1: Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Arts Students will actively engage in the processes that constitute creation and performance in the arts and participate in various roles in the arts.
Standard 2: Knowing and Using Arts Materials and Resources
Students will be knowledgeable about and make use of the materials and resources available for participation in the arts in various roles.

Objectives:

Objectives:

Students will understand that a volcano can act as a giant cooling vent for the Earth’s inner core

Students will create and construct their own volcano

Students will represent the physical impacts of a volcano eruption

Students will write a news article about the volcanic eruption


Procedure

Introduction and Motivation:

Engaging Question: How do volcanoes work?

Exploration: Review with your students what they have learned about volcanoes. In discussing what they know about volcanoes, bring out the following background information:

  1. At Earth’s center is a core of hot liquid iron and nickel.
  2. Earth is made up of interlocking pieces of land called tectonic plates.
  3. Heat from Earth’s core can escape to the outside through a gap between tectonic plates, or heat can “punch” through the middle of a tectonic plate, releasing pressure and heat to the outside.

Tell students they are going to create model volcanoes that will help them visualize what a real volcanic eruption is like.

Divide your class into groups, distributing materials to each group.

Activities:

Explanation Have students in each group line their work area with newspaper and put on smocks or lab coats to prevent staining desktops or clothing.

5.         Instruct students in each group to place the soda bottle in the baking pan, and mold the clay, dough, or soil into a “mountain” around the bottle. Students should be sure not to cover the bottle opening or to allow any material to get inside the bottle.

6.         Tell students to fill the bottle almost to the top with warm water mixed with a little red food coloring.

7.         Next, students should add 6 drops of liquid detergent to the bottle.

8.         Have students add the baking soda to the bottle, using the funnel.

9.         Also using the funnel, have students pour the vinegar slowly into the bottle.

10.       Once the vinegar is added, students should see a red, foamy mixture rise over the top of the “volcano” and flow down its slopes. Tell students that the mixture represents the lava that flows down the sides of a real volcano.

Group Activity:

Students will be instructed to discuss as a group what happened to cause the volcano to erupt as well as what would have happened to everything to the surrounding civilizations and land.

Closure:

Expansion: Discuss findings:

Either explain to students how their models resemble a real volcano, or challenge them to do research to come up with their own explanations. Here is an explanation you might give:

The molten metal that makes up Earth’s core is called magma. Extreme heat can cause bubbles of carbon dioxide gas in magma to expand. The expanding gas pushes the magma into the vent, or opening, of a volcano and up to Earth’s surface. A volcanic eruption occurs when the magma overflows. The overflowing magma is called lava. Vinegar and baking soda, when mixed together, react chemically to create carbon dioxide gas. The gas bubbles build up inside the bottle, forcing the liquid out of the bottle. In this way, the model is similar to a real volcano.

Evaluation: Assessment:  Assess understanding during conference time and during the share. Ask follow up questions if students are not confident with their explanations. Evaluate groups on their projects on the basis of how well they follow instructions and work together.

For students with disabilities, it will be important to be aware of each student’s individual learning needs and testing accommodations as identified in the Individualized Education Plan

Diversity: This lesson brings abstract scientific concept into concrete instruction by use of pictures, props, and the creation of illustrations.

Differentiation:

As a Group:

Collaborative and Flexible grouping, scaffolding, varied time allowance, multiple intelligences, varied demonstrations, simulations, role play

Students with Disabilities:

Key points are taught explicitly, especially abstract concepts meanwhile increasing the amount of modeling, examples and practice.

Hands-on activities are used for students lacking verbal skills

Increase concreteness by adding pictures, props, labels, charge, symbols, shapes and color.

Using visual and tactile skills, students who struggle with abstract scientific concepts are able to use their own illustrations to show that they understand the content. This lesson also supports concreteness of the topic with the use of pictures, labels and name (McCormick, 2011).

Connections Across Curriculum: Writing, Speaking and Listening

Bibliography

Cornett, C. E. (2011). Creating Meaning through Literature and the Arts. Boston: Pearson Education Inc.

Education, N. Y. (2009). New York City K-8 Social Studies Scope and Sequence. New York: NYCDOE.

Education, N. Y. (n.d.). http://www.p12.nysed.gov/ciai/standards.html. Retrieved 3 23, 2012, from NYSED.GOV Curriculum and Instruction: http://www.p12.nysed.gov/ciai/standards.html

Martin, R., Sexton, C., & Franklin, T. (2009). Teaching Science for All Children. Pearson Education Inc.

McCormick, S. (2011). Instructing Students Who Have Literacy Probelms. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

Moore, K. D. (2009). Effective Instructional Strategies. SAGE Publications, Inc.

 

 

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